The accumulated knowledge of centuries of ancient Asian medicine has been passed down from generation to generation and also passed on to early European explorers and settlers. Consequently it is no wonder that so much recent modern scientific research has been conducted on the Mangosteen and the beneficial properties of the pericarp (rind).
An enormous amount of modern study and research has been channelled toward unlocking the secrets of this remarkable fruit. Scientists have actually identified the major compounds found in the Mangosteen that are responsible for its healthful characteristics.
These days, just about everybody knows about free radicals and the damage they wreak on the body and most would know, to counteract the effects of free radicals, we need a diet high in antioxidants. Free radicals attack the cells in our bodies every second of every day, whilst antioxidants work actively with the immune system to repair the damage before cellular degeneration occurs. If the balance between free radical attack and the body’s ability to overcome free radical activity is weighted on the side of the free radicals… well… you are destined for early onset of metabolic disease and a premature death!
Much has been made of the extensive antioxidant properties of vitamins, especially Vitamin C and Vitamin E. But did you know the beneficial effects of synthetic vitamins are extremely questionable? Recent scientific research clearly indicates that anyone relying on synthetic vitamins to maintain their health, experience little or no benefit. Conversely, synthetic vitamins taken in larger doses in the mistaken belief that more is better, may in fact make you feel much worse and result in a deterioration of health and even premature death.
But did you know there exists many whole food antioxidants that are much more powerful than any combination of synthetic vitamins? The key to good health is not to take synthetic vitamin supplements but to supplement with proven whole food antioxidants.
One of these life-enhancing antioxidants is found in Mangosteen pericarp and is called Xanthone.
In fact, there’s a whole family of Xanthones, with some of the most dynamic found in the whole fruit Mangosteen which includes the pericarp. While most people know about the antioxidant benefits of Vitamins C and E from whole foods, far fewer are aware of the incredibly potent antioxidant power of Xanthones and many other phyto-chemicals. Xanthones are natural plant chemical substances that have recently won high praise from numerous scientists and researchers. Xanthones have been studied for their medicinal potential, since they demonstrate a number of health giving properties and are proving to be significant substances for good health.
The Research on Xanthones:
Xanthones have been the subject of quite a degree of research for several decades. They’re found in a select number of rain forest plants and dark red fruits and even things like the purple kumara, (sweet potato) a staple of the Maori in New Zealand for centuries. Xanthones are found in abundance in the pericarp or rind, of the Mangosteen fruit. The smooth, purple/dark red covering that was traditionally ground with ancient mortars and used to heal infection, turns out to be very high in beneficial Xanthones and potent antioxidants.
The two most beneficial Xanthones found in the Mangosteen have been named Alpha Mangostin and Gamma Mangostin. When isolated and thoroughly tested by researchers, these two Xanthones have been found to carry a host of benefits. According to professional journals such as Free Radical Research, Journal of Pharmacology, and the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, these Xanthones have a significant effect on cardiovascular health; are naturally antibiotic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory; and are amongst the most powerful antioxidants found in nature.
Research laboratories around the world have now been helping us understand how the Mangosteen fruit imparts such wonderful benefits. Modern science is just catching up with what herbal doctors have already known for centuries about Mangosteen.
For more information go to http://www.pubmed.com and search for “Xanthones” or “Garcinia Mangostana” in the database and read the scientific research.
PROVEN BENEFITS OF XANTHONES – YOU CAN FEEL THE DIFFERENCE
7.) Anti–periodontic (gum disease)
9.) Anti-seborrheic (skin disease)
10.) Anti-pyretic (anti-fever)
13.) Anti-neuralgia (nerve pain)
14.) Anti-vertigo (dizziness)
16.) Anti-pain (for example, dental pain)
17.) Anti-inflammatory (cox-2 inhibitor; like Vioxx & Celebrex but without side effects)
18.) Anti-ulcer (for example, ulcers of stomach, mouth, small bowel, large bowel)
MORE BENEFITS … WHETHER YOU “FEEL” THEM, OR NOT
1.) Anti-oxidant (can be measured)
2.) Anti-cancer (can be measured)
3.) Anti-aging (can be measured)
4.) Anti-hypertension (can be measured)
5.) Anti-hypoglycemia (can be measured)
6.) Anti-immune-system-depression (can be measured)
7.) Anti-blood fat (can be measured)
8.) Anti-atherosclerosis (blood vessel, heart disease) (can be measured)
9.) Anti-osteoporosis (can be measured)
10.) Anti-viral (can be measured)
11.) Anti-bacterial (can be measured)
12.) Anti-fungal (can be measured)
13.) Anti-kidney stones (can be measured)
14.) Anti-cataracts (can be measured)
Mangosteen is a small and very slow-growing tropical evergreen tree. The height of the tree attains 20 to 82 feet. The length of its leaves is up to 10 inches. The width of its flowers is 1 ½ to 2 inches. And maybe male or hermaphrodite is on the same tree.
Mangosteen is native to South East Asia and requires a year round, warm, very humid, equatorial climate. In spite of that, many people have tried to plant Mangosteen in other places, such as California, Florida, or special greenhouses somewhere outside South East Asia. The outcome is seldom successful due to the different living conditions. The tree only can grow well in tropical areas and requires abundant moisture. Thailand or Burma are the original countries people found Mangosteen in. Recently tropical Australia has been found to be an excellent area for Mangosteen production.
Mangosteen Health Benefits
Mangosteen is a fruit found in tropical countries throughout Asia, for example Thailand, India, Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines. It also grows reasonably well in areas such as Hawaii and tropical Northern Australia from Innisfail north to Cooktown.
The Mangosteen fruit consist of 3 major parts.
The pulp – which is the fruit and is known for being one of the tastiest fruits in the world.
The seeds – Found within the white pulp.
Mangosteen fruit contains compounds that have antioxidant – anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Scientific research indicates activity against several cancer cell lines, including breast cancer, liver cancer and leukemia. In addition, Mangosteen also exhibits anti-histamine and anti-inflammatory properties. Traditionally, Mangosteen has been used for many years as a medicinal treatment for diarrhea, skin infection and wounds in throughout South Asia.
The latest in scientific research shows Mangosteen contains a class of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds known as xanthones. Xanthones may provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and thrombosis. Mangosteen also shows vasorelaxant properties.
Mangosteen has demonstrated an inhibitory action against the bacterial organisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus. Mangosteen is also proving to be highly effective in supporting and strengthening a weak immune system. There are several important compounds found in the Mangosteen that would appear to make this fruit an active and important nutritional supplement for the human body.
Mangosteen Xanthones are broken down even further into mangostin, mangostenol, mangostenone A, Mangostenone B, trapezifolixanthone, tovophyllin B, alpha- and beta-mangostins, garcinone B, mangostinone, mangostanol and the flavonoid epicatechin. A study of the antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line, showed SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of mangosteen extract at various concentrations. Mangosteen showed a dose dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. “We found that an antiproliferative effect of mangosteen was associated with apoptosis on breast cancer cell line by determinations of morphological changes and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments.”
Mangosteen also was found to inhibit ROS production. These investigations suggest that Mangosteen has strong anti-proliferation, potent anti-oxidation and induction of apoptosis properties. Mangosteen has potential for cancer chemoprevention, which is dose dependent as well as exposure time dependent. The ethanol extract of Mangosteen showed potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. The activity-guided purification of the extract resulted in the isolation of two active known compounds. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis as mangostin and gamma-mangostin.
Potential Benefits of Mangosteen
Free radical fighter
Immune system Enhancer
Skin rashes, infections and wounds
Dubious Marketing Practices:
Over the last few years a massive new Mangosteen health drink demand in the USA and in several other countries such as Canada the UK and Australia, has resulted from extremely well oiled marketing campaigns surrounding a number of new Mangosteen product launches. It seems the U.S. is in the grip of a “Mangosteen craze” due to a number of intensive and expensive marketing programs, touting Mangosteen as the new cure all for every disease going.
Some of the claims being made for liquid Mangosteen health drinks are quite extraordinary … including the curing of cancer. Although scientific studies indicate Mangosteen does play a role in the reversal of metabolic disease due to the very high concentrations of xanthones, phyto-chemicals and subsequently high antioxidant properties, no real scientific evidence is available to back up some of the more spurious claims regarding cancer that are being made by companies/individuals promoting a popular liquid Mangosteen juice.
The level of active ingredients in many liquid Mangosteen juices simply is not great enough, (unless one was to drink a pint per day) to supply sufficient xanthones and antioxidants to make any noticeable difference to the health of someone suffering metabolic disease such as cancer.
Mangosteen Documented Health Benefits
1. Anti-fatigue (energy booster)
2. Powerful anti-inflammatory (prevents inflammation)
3. Analgesic (prevents pain)
4. Anti-ulcer (stomach,
mouth and bowel ulcers)
5. Anti-depressant (low to moderate)
6. Anxyolytic (anti-anxiety effect)
7. Anti-Alzheimerian (helps prevent dementia)
8. Anti-tumor and cancer prevention (multiple categories cited)… shown to be capable of killing cancer cells
9. Immunomodulator (multiple categories cited) – helps the immune system
13. Anti–biotic (modulates bacterial infections)
14. Anti-fungal (prevents fungal infections)
15. Anti-seborrheaic (prevents skin disorders)
16. Anti-lipidemic (blood fat lowering, LDL)
17. Anti-atherosclerotic (prevents hardening
18. Cardioprotective (protects the heart)
19. Hypotensive (blood pressure lowering)
20. Hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic effect, helps lower blood sugar)
21. Anti-obesity (helps with weight loss)
22. Anti-arthritic (prevention of arthritis)
23. Anti-osteoporosis (helps prevent the loss of bone mass)
24. Anti-periodontic (prevents gum disease)
25. Anti-allergenic (prevents allergic reaction)
26. Anti-calculitic (prevents kidney stones)
27. Anti-pyretic (fever lowering)
30. Anti-neuralgic (reduces nerve pain)
31. Anti-vertigo (prevents dizziness)
32. Anti-glaucomic (prevents glaucoma)
33. Anti-cataract (prevents cataracts)
34. Pansystemic – has a synergistic effect on the whole body
Benefits of Mangosteen
By Kevin Stith
It has already been generally accepted (and widely advertised) that mangosteen extract is useful in the treatment of arthritis, acid dyspepsia, fibromylagia, moderate asthma, otitis externa and eczema. Now, the latest findings indicate that mangosteen has – in addition to its antioxidant effects – antimicrobial actions that inhibit the progression of acne. Furthermore, it is highly effective against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a bacterium responsible for staph infections.
Mangosteen is at least as effective as most pharmacological agents as far as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties are concerned. Diabetics are increasingly in favor of its regular use and report that their need for insulin decreases considerably with the ingestion of mangosteen products.
The medicinal benefits of mangosteen will doubtlessly be heralded for a long time to come. Many more will be announced and either confirmed or dismissed in the process. At the moment, there is an understandable trend towards treatment with naturopathic agents like mangosteen extracts in lieu of prescription drugs.
Those properties may be taken as confirmed (unlike some of the miraculous benefits ascribed to it.) However, the highest testimonial that can be given for including this legendary (and certainly not inexpensive) plant in one’s diet is the fact that people who do apparently enjoy better overall health. This means that they appear to be less prone to disease and have higher energy levels than those who do not use mangosteen. They spend less money on prophylactic (preventive) medicines, pay fewer visits to doctors and hospitals and display a higher level of confidence in their health status.
With polluted air, toxic wastes and high levels of stress threatening humans from every side, natural products like mangosteen may offer a centuries-old escape from some of the worst maladies generated by modern civilization. In an age where the use of regenerative food supplements has become something of a religion, could one possibly give higher endorsement to any other natural solution?
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