Adelfa

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Nerium indicum Mill.
SOUTH SEA ROSE
Chia-chu-t’ao

Scientific names Common names
Neroum indicum Mill. Adelfa (Span., Tag.)
Neroum oleander Blanco Baladre (Tag.)
Nerium odorum Soland. Ceylon Tree (Engl.)
Dog bane (Engl.)
Oleander (Engl.)
Rose bay (Engl.)
South sea rose (Engl.)
Chia-chu-t’ao (Chin.)

Botany
Adelfa01
Adelfa is an erect, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high with a cream-colored, sticky, resinous juice. Leaves are in whorls of 3 or 4, linear-lanceolate, 10 to15 centimeters long, with numerous horizontal nerves. Flowers are showy, sweet-scented, single or double, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter, white, pink, or red, borne on terminal inflorescences (cymes). Fruit is cylindric, paired, with deep linear striations, 15 to 20 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous and compressed, with a tuft of fine, shining, white and grayish, silky hairs.

Distribution
– Throughout the Philippines in cultivation.
– Nowhere established.
– Introduced by the Spaniards.
– Native of subtropical or tropical Asia.
– Now pantropic.

Constituents
– Phytochemical screening has yielded cardiac glycosides, pregnanes, terpenes flavonoids, etc.
– Study yielded glycoside, oleadrin; tannin; volatile oil, 0.25%.
– Yielded two principles: neriin and oleandrin, glucosides with properties similar to digitalin.
– The seeds yield fat 17.4%, phytosterin and l-strophanthin.
– Bark contains toxic glycosides: rosaginin and nerlin, volatile oil, fixed oil.
– Nerium odorum’s bark yielded two toxic bitter principles–neriodorin and neriodorein. Another toxic principle is karabin. Both karabin and neriodorin are probably resins, rather than glucosides.
– Roots yield a yellow, poisonous resin, tannic acid, wax, and sugar, but no alkaloid or volatile poison.
– Study isolated 14 compounds: a new prenane, 14α,16-dihydroxy-3-oxo-γ-lactone-pregn-4-en-21-oic acid (16β,17α), and thirteen known cardiac glycosides:oleandrin, oleandrigenin, neriosid, nerigoside,16,17-didehydrosomalin, oleaside A, adynerin, odoroside-A , 3β-hydroxy-5β-carda-8β,14β,20,(22)-trienolid, odoroside H, deacetyloandrin, adynerigenin,3β-hydroxy-5α-8β,14β-epoxy-card-20(22)-enolid.

Properties
– Leaves and flowers are considered cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and expectorant.
– Whole plant believed to have anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, sedating, and anthelmintic effects.
– The pharmacologic actions of of neriin and oleandrin resemble those of digitalis glucosides. In human beings, toxicity manifests as nausea, vomiting, colic, decreased appetite, dizziness, drowsiness, bradycardia and irregular heart beats, pupillary dilation, and sometimes unconsciousness attributed to digitalis poisoning.
– Reported biologic activities to include anti-inflammatory, sedative, anti-bacterial, csrdiac, anti-neoplastic and anthelmintic.

Parts used and preparation
Bark and leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
– Herpes zoster (skin): Crush leaves, mix with oil and apply on lesions. Do not apply on raw surface. Milky juice of the plant is irritating. Caution: Not to be taken internally.
– Herpes simplex: Mix 1 cup of chopped leaves and bark with 2 tablespoons of oil. Apply to lesions 3 times daily.
– Ringworm: Chop a foot long branch and mix with 1 cup chopped fresh young leaves. Mix the juice with 5 drops of fresh coconut oil. Apply 3 times daily.
– Snake bites: Pound 10 leaves and a piece of branch. Apply poultice to the wound.
– Root used, locally and internally, by women in western and southern India and in the central Malay Peninsula for suicide and for procuring criminal abortion.
– Past of bark of the roots is applied externally for ringworm.
– Used in leprosy, skin eruptions, and boils.
– In the Punjab and Cashmere areas, roots are used for asthma.
– Leaves used in the treatment of malaria and dysmenorrhea; also used as abortifacient.
– Roots, made into paste with water, used for hemorrhoids.
– Leaves and bark used externally for eczema, snake bites and as insecticide; internally, used for epilepsy.
– Dried leaves used as sternutatory.
– Infusion of leaves and fruit used a cardiac regulator.
– In Morocco, fresh leaves applied to tumors to hasten suppuration.
– In traditional Chinese medicine, the flowers and leaves have been used to stimulate the cardiac muscles, relieve pain and eliminate blood stasis.

Studies

Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark: The study showed the bark of Nerium indicum as an important source of botanical molluscicide and is an effective insecticide against Blatta orientalis. Glycosides, steroids and terpenoids were also isolated from Nerium indicum.
Primary Metabolites: Study on the quantification of primary metabolites in N. indicum yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, lipids, etc. N. indicum’s stem contains higher levels of phenol which has immuno-modulating, anti-tumour and antibacterial activities.
Tincture Cardiovascular Effect: Tincture Karveer is a potent cardiotonic drug which is also purported to relieve symptoms of Cor pulmonale as a bronchodilator and cough sedative. The tincture is considered safe and helpful, and promising for the treatment of CHF in humans.
Neuroprotective: Study of isolated polysaccharides from the flowers of N. indicum (J6) showed potential as a neuroprotective agent against neuronal death in Alzheimer’s disease through a mechanism that may primarily rely on inactivation of the JNK signaling pathway.
Polysaccharides / Nerve Growth Factor-like Effect: Study of polysaccharides J1 (a rhamnogalacturonan) and J2 (a xyloglucan) from the whole flowers of N. indicum were tested on the proliferation and differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and found to have nerve growth factor-life effect.
Analgesic: Study of extract of flowers and roots of N. indicum showed promising antinociceptive activity mediated through the prostaglandin pathways with analgesic principles interfering with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins.
Larvicidal: Study of larvicidal lethality of extracts of lattices of N indicum and E royleana on Culex quinquefasciatus showed significant delay in embryonic development of Culex larvae.
Antimicrobial / Antifungal: In a study of the ethanolic extracts of dried leaves of N. indicum and Martynia annua, N indicum showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to M. annua.
Anti-Angiogenesis: Study yielded three oligosaccharides. Bioactivity angiogenesis testing showed two of the oligosaccharides significantly inhibited the HMEC-1 cell tube formation.
Cytotoxicity / Anticancer: Most of the compounds isolated from the leaves of N. indicum exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HeLa cell. Odoroside-A exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity.
Molluscicidal: Study of different bark preparations showed varying degrees of time- and dose-dependent molluscicidal activity.
Anti-Ulcer: Study of a methanol extract against pylorus-induced gastric ulcer and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats showed significant antiulcer activity in all models with significant reduction of gastric volume, free acidity, and ulcer index. Results suggest an antisecretory effect.
Anti-Diabetic: Study investigated the antidiabetic activity of a leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed significant antidiabetic activity. The antihyperglycemic action of the extracts may be due to improvement of the glycemic control mechanisms.
CNS Effects / Sedative / Hypnotic : Study on behavior pattern in mice showed fractions of leaves extract induced sedation at low dose and hypnosis at high doses. Fractions also showed significant decrease in locomotion counts, decrease in motor performances and enhancement of hexobarbital sleeping time. Effects are possibly through GABA-ergic modifications.
Anti-HIV / Anticancer: In a small clinical trial (20 patients in a DB, placebo controlled study) in a Johannesburg AIDS clinic evaluating the effectiveness of supplements ingredients (Nerium oleander and Sutherlandia frutescens) against HIV results showed significant improvement with an increase in CD4 count while the placebo group declined.
Hepatoprotective: A methanolic plant extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon-tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Toxicity Studies: (1) Study evaluated the toxic effects of a crude watery extract in male adult guinea pigs. The lowest nonlethal dose was 300 mg/kbw and doses of 450 to 900 caused varying frequency of mortality. The LD50 is 540 mg/kbw. (2) Study reported clinical, ECG, and pathologic findings in goats consistenet with those reported in sheep and cattle. Main signs were related to the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Study concludes goat is susceptible to oleander toxicosis just like other domestic ruminants. However, the unpalatable nature of the plant and the selective feeding habit of the goat, make poisoning in this species infrequent.

stuartxchange.org/Adelfa.html

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Adelfa (Nerium oleander)

Adelfa is an evergreen shrub that grows from 6 to 20 feet in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide including the Philippines. Its flowers may range in color from white, pink, red and any shade between them. Adelfa is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcers, ringworms, leprosy, eczema, hemorrhoids, herpes simplex and herpes zoster (skin shingles). It is also effective as skin insect repellant.

Adelfa/Nerium oreander is also is being promoted to treat cancer, heart failure and even AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). However, its effectiveness have not yet been proven to treat these ailments. For cancer treatment, initial testing is promising. Test show that oleandrin, an ingredient of adelfa leaves, causes the death of some cancer cells. Further research is however needed.

Warning: Extracts from leaves, flowers, bark, stems and roots of Adelfa (Nerium oreander) is toxic to humans and animals when taken internally and may even cause death. Adelfa can also cause abortion if taken orally, even in small amounts. Consult with a health care provider before starting any treatment using any plant part or extract of this poisonous shrub.

Preparation & Use of Adelfa/Nerium oreander in traditional medicine:

  • For herpes zoster: Mix crushed leaves and oil, then apply on lesions on the surface of the skin. Do not apply when skin has eruptions.
    • Herpes simplex and eczema: Blend chopped adelfa leaves and bark with some oil and apply directly to lesions, 3 times a day.
    • Snake bites: make a poultice of finely ground leaves and branch of adelfa. Apply directly on wound and cover with cloth or gauze. Secure with surgical tape.
    • Ringworms: Make a paste using crushed and finely chopped bark of the root and a little coconut oil. Apply on skin 3 times a day.
    • For Hemorrhoids, crush roots and make a paste by adding a little water, then apply.
    • Roots and bark used externally for , snake bites and as insecticide.
    • Tumors: Apply fresh leaves directly to tumors to accelerate suppuration.

philippineherbalmedicine.org/adelfa.htm

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ADELFA

(Nerium indicum mill)or in english it is called the South sea Rose. Smooth shrub with a cream-colored sticky resinous juice. Flowers are sweet scented single or double, white, pink or red.

Folkloric uses: For skin; herpes or other skin diseases;Crush leaves mix with oil and apply on lesions. do not apply on raw surface. milky juice of the plant is irritating. for ringworm; chop branch with a cup young leaves, mix juice with drops of fresh coconut oil, apply 3X daily. Snake bites; pound leaves and a piece of branch apply poultice to the wound. Roots; decoction of roots locally and internally is used for abortion. Roots; made into paste with water for hemorrhoids.

engineeringfemaleorgasms.com/nerium-indicum-mill.htm

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Adelfa – Scientific name: Nerium Indicum Mil

English: Oleander, Aldelfa ;
Tagalog: Aldelfa

Erect, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high with a cream-colored sticky resinous juice. Leaves are in whorls of 3 or 4, linear-lanceolate, 10-15 cm long, with numerous horizontal nerves. Flowers are showy, sweet-scented, single or double, 4-5 cm in diameter, white, pink or red, borne in terminal inflorescence (cymes). Fruit is cylindrical, paired, with deep linear striations, 15-20 cm long. Seeds are numerous and compressed, with a tuft of fine, shining, white, silky hairs.

Application:
– Herpes zoster (skin): Crush leaves, mix with oil and apply on lesions. Do not apply on raw surface. Milky juice of the plant is irritating. Caution: Not to be taken internally.
– Herpes simplex: Mix 1 cup of chopped leaves and bark with 2 tablespoons of oil. Apply to lesions 3 times daily.
– Ringworm: Chop a foot long branch and mix with 1 cup chopped fresh young leaves. Mix the juice with 5 drops of fresh coconut oil. Apply 3 times daily.
– Snake bites: Pound 10 leaves and a piece of branch. Apply poultice to the wound.
– Root, locally and internally, used for abortion.
– Roots, made into paste with water, used for hemorrhoids.
– Roots and bark used externally for eczema, snake bites and as insecticide.
– Fresh leaves applied to tumors to hasten suppuration.

Constituents and properties
Glycoside, oleadrin; tannin; volatile oil, 0.25%.
Nerium oleander’s leaves contain two principles: neriin and oleandrin, glucosides with properties similar to digitalin.
The seeds contain phytosterin and l-strophnathin. The bark contains toxic glycosides: rosaginin and nerlin, volatile oil, fixed oil.

Nerium odorum’s bark yielded two toxic bitter principles­neriodorin and neriodorein. Another toxic principle is karabin. Both karabin and neriodorin are probably resins, rather than glucosides.

The pharmacologic actions of of neriin and oleandrin resemble those of digitalis glucosides. In human beings, toxicity manifests as nausea, vomiting, colic, decreased appetite, dizziness, drowsiness, bradycardia and irregular heart beats, pupillary dilation, and sometimes unconsciousness attributed to digitalis poisoning.

Distribution
Cultivated for its flowers; nowwhere established.

filipinoherbshealingwonders.filipinovegetarianrecipe.com/adelfa.htm

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