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Table of Contents:
- Management – Introduction
- Management as a Process
- Management as an Activity
- Management as a Discipline
- Management as a Group
- Management as a Science
- Management as an Art
- Management as a Profession
- Features of Management
- Levels of Management
- Objectives of Management
- Importance of Management
- Management and Administration
- Functions of Management
- Co-ordination – Introduction
- Co-ordination and Co-operation
- Management Principles
- Management Principles – Features
- Importance of Management Principles
- Scientific Management – Introduction
- Principles of Scientific Management
- Techniques of Scientific Management
- Criticism of Scientific Management
- Taylor and Fayol
What is Management?:
|Management is a universal phenomenon. It is a very popular and widely used term. All organizations – business, political, cultural or social are involved in management because it is the management which helps and directs the various efforts towards a definite purpose. According to Harold Koontz, “Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals and can co-operate towards attainment of group goals”. According to F.W. Taylor, “Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way”.Management is a purposive activity. It is something that directs group efforts towards the attainment of certain pre – determined goals. It is the process of working with and through others to effectively achieve the goals of the organization, by efficiently using limited resources in the changing world. Of course, these goals may vary from one enterprise to another. E.g.: For one enterprise it may be launching of new products by conducting market surveys and for other it may be profit maximization by minimizing cost.|
Management involves creating an internal environment: – It is the management which puts into use the various factors of production. Therefore, it is the responsibility of management to create such conditions which are conducive to maximum efforts so that people are able to perform their task efficiently and effectively. It includes ensuring availability of raw materials, determination of wages and salaries, formulation of rules & regulations etc.
Therefore, we can say that good management includes both being effective and efficient. Being effective means doing the appropriate task i.e, fitting the square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Being efficient means doing the task correctly, at least possible cost with minimum wastage of resources.
Management can be defined in detail in following categories :
- Management as a Process
- Management as an Activity
- Management as a Discipline
- Management as a Group
- Management as a Science
- Management as an Art
- Management as a Profession
Management as a Process:
As a process, management refers to a series of inter – related functions. It is the process by which management creates, operates and directs purposive organization through systematic, coordinated and co-operated human efforts, according to George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objective by the use of human beings and other resources”. As a process, management consists of three aspects:
- Management is a social process – Since human factor is most important among the other factors, therefore management is concerned with developing relationship among people. It is the duty of management to make interaction between people – productive and useful for obtaining organizational goals.
- Management is an integrating process – Management undertakes the job of bringing together human physical and financial resources so as to achieve organizational purpose. Therefore, is an important function to bring harmony between various factors.
- Management is a continuous process – It is a never ending process. It is concerned with constantly identifying the problem and solving them by taking adequate steps. It is an on-going process.
Management as an Activity:
Like various other activities performed by human beings such as writing, playing, eating, cooking etc, management is also an activity because a manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others. According to Koontz, “Management is what a manager does”. Management as an activity includes –
- Informational activities – In the functioning of business enterprise, the manager constantly has to receive and give information orally or in written. A communication link has to be maintained with subordinates as well as superiors for effective functioning of an enterprise.
- Decisional activities – Practically all types of managerial activities are based on one or the other types of decisions. Therefore, managers are continuously involved in decisions of different kinds since the decision made by one manager becomes the basis of action to be taken by other managers. (E.g. Sales Manager is deciding the media & content of advertising).
- Inter-personal activities – Management involves achieving goals through people. Therefore, managers have to interact with superiors as well as the sub-ordinates. They must maintain good relations with them. The inter-personal activities include with the sub-ordinates and taking care of the problem. (E.g. Bonuses to be given to the sub-ordinates).
Management as a Discipline:
Management as a discipline refers to that branch of knowledge which is connected to study of principles & practices of basic administration. It specifies certain code of conduct to be followed by the manager & also various methods for managing resources efficiently.
Management as a discipline specifies certain code of conduct for managers & indicates various methods of managing an enterprise. Management is a course of study which is now formally being taught in the institutes and universities after completing a prescribed course or by obtaining degree or diploma in management, a person can get employment as a manager.
Any branch of knowledge that fulfils following two requirements is known as discipline:
- There must be scholars & thinkers who communicate relevant knowledge through research and publications.
- The knowledge should be formally imparted by education and training programmes.
Since management satisfies both these problems, therefore it qualifies to be a discipline. Though it is comparatively a new discipline but it is growing at a faster pace.
Management as a Group:
Management as a group refers to all those persons who perform the task of managing an enterprise. When we say that management of ABC & Co. is good, we are referring to a group of people those who are managing. Thus as a group technically speaking, management will include all managers from chief executive to the first – line managers (lower-level managers). But in common practice management includes only top management i.e. Chief Executive, Chairman, General Manager, Board of Directors etc. In other words, those who are concerned with making important decisions, these persons enjoy the authorities to use resources to accomplish organizational objectives & also responsibility to for their efficient utilization.
Management as a Science:
Science is a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explains a phenomenon. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through scientific method of observation and verification through testing.
Science is characterized by following main features:
- Universally acceptance principles – Scientific principles represents basic truth about a particular field of enquiry. These principles may be applied in all situations, at all time & at all places. E.g. – law of gravitation which can be applied in all countries irrespective of the time.
Management also contains some fundamental principles which can be applied universally like the Principle of Unity of Command i.e. one man, one boss. This principle is applicable to all type of organization – business or non business.
- Experimentation & Observation – Scientific principles are derived through scientific investigation & researching i.e. they are based on logic. E.g. the principle that earth goes round the sun has been scientifically proved.
Management principles are also based on scientific enquiry & observation and not only on the opinion of Henry Fayol. They have been developed through experiments & practical experiences of large no. of managers. E.g. it is observed that fair remuneration to personal helps in creating a satisfied work force.
- Cause & Effect Relationship – Principles of science lay down cause and effect relationship between various variables. E.g. when metals are heated, they are expanded. The cause is heating & result is expansion.
The same is true for management, therefore it also establishes cause and effect relationship. E.g. lack of parity (balance) between authority & responsibility will lead to ineffectiveness. If you know the cause i.e. lack of balance, the effect can be ascertained easily i.e. in effectiveness. Similarly if workers are given bonuses, fair wages they will work hard but when not treated in fair and just manner, reduces productivity of organization.
- Test of Validity & Predictability – Validity of scientific principles can be tested at any time or any number of times i.e. they stand the test of time. Each time these tests will give same result. Moreover future events can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using scientific principles. E.g. H2 & O2 will always give H2O.
Principles of management can also be tested for validity. E.g. principle of unity of command can be tested by comparing two persons – one having single boss and one having 2 bosses. The performance of 1st person will be better than 2nd.
It cannot be denied that management has a systematic body of knowledge but it is not as exact as that of other physical sciences like biology, physics, and chemistry etc. The main reason for the inexactness of science of management is that it deals with human beings and it is very difficult to predict their behavior accurately. Since it is a social process, therefore it falls in the area of social sciences. It is a flexible science & that is why its theories and principles may produce different results at different times and therefore it is a behavior science. Ernest Dale has called it as a Soft Science.
Management as an Art:
Art implies application of knowledge & skill to trying about desired results. An art may be defined as personalized application of general theoretical principles for achieving best possible results. Art has the following characters –
- Practical Knowledge: Every art requires practical knowledge therefore learning of theory is not sufficient. It is very important to know practical application of theoretical principles. E.g. to become a good painter, the person may not only be knowing different colour and brushes but different designs, dimensions, situations etc to use them appropriately. A manager can never be successful just by obtaining degree or diploma in management; he must have also know how to apply various principles in real situations by functioning in capacity of manager.
- Personal Skill: Although theoretical base may be same for every artist, but each one has his own style and approach towards his job. That is why the level of success and quality of performance differs from one person to another. E.g. there are several qualified painters but M.F. Hussain is recognized for his style. Similarly management as an art is also personalized. Every manager has his own way of managing things based on his knowledge, experience and personality, that is why some managers are known as good managers (like Aditya Birla, Rahul Bajaj) whereas others as bad.
- Creativity: Every artist has an element of creativity in line. That is why he aims at producing something that has never existed before which requires combination of intelligence & imagination. Management is also creative in nature like any other art. It combines human and non-human resources in useful way so as to achieve desired results. It tries to produce sweet music by combining chords in an efficient manner.
- Perfection through practice: Practice makes a man perfect. Every artist becomes more and more proficient through constant practice. Similarly managers learn through an art of trial and error initially but application of management principles over the years makes them perfect in the job of managing.
- Goal-Oriented: Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concrete results. In the same manner, management is also directed towards accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Managers use various resources like men, money, material, machinery & methods to promote growth of an organization.
Thus, we can say that management is an art therefore it requires application of certain principles rather it is an art of highest order because it deals with moulding the attitude and behavior of people at work towards desired goals.
Management as both Science and Art
Management is both an art and a science. The above mentioned points clearly reveals that management combines features of both science as well as art. It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills.
A manager to be successful in his profession must acquire the knowledge of science & the art of applying it. Therefore management is a judicious blend of science as well as an art because it proves the principles and the way these principles are applied is a matter of art. Science teaches to ’know’ and art teaches to ’do’. E.g. a person cannot become a good singer unless he has knowledge about various ragas & he also applies his personal skill in the art of singing. Same way it is not sufficient for manager to first know the principles but he must also apply them in solving various managerial problems that is why, science and art are not mutually exclusive but they are complementary to each other (like tea and biscuit, bread and butter etc.).
The old saying that “Manager are Born” has been rejected in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been aptly remarked that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science. To conclude, we can say that science is the root and art is the fruit.
Management as a Profession:
Over a large few decades, factors such as growing size of business unit, separation of ownership from management, growing competition etc have led to an increased demand for professionally qualified managers. The task of manager has been quite specialized. As a result of these developments the management has reached a stage where everything is to be managed professionally.
A profession may be defined as an occupation that requires specialized knowledge and intensive academic preparations to which entry is regulated by a representative body. The essentials of a profession are:
- Specialized Knowledge – A profession must have a systematic body of knowledge that can be used for development of professionals. Every professional must make deliberate efforts to acquire expertise in the principles and techniques. Similarly a manager must have devotion and involvement to acquire expertise in the science of management.
- Formal Education & Training – There are no. of institutes and universities to impart education & training for a profession. No one can practice a profession without going through a prescribed course. Many institutes of management have been set up for imparting education and training. For example, a CA cannot audit the A/C’s unless he has acquired a degree or diploma for the same but no minimum qualifications and a course of study has been prescribed for managers by law. For example, MBA may be preferred but not necessary.
- Social Obligations – Profession is a source of livelihood but professionals are primarily motivated by the desire to serve the society. Their actions are influenced by social norms and values. Similarly a manager is responsible not only to its owners but also to the society and therefore he is expected to provide quality goods at reasonable prices to the society.
- Code of Conduct – Members of a profession have to abide by a code of conduct which contains certain rules and regulations, norms of honesty, integrity and special ethics. A code of conduct is enforced by a representative association to ensure self discipline among its members. Any member violating the code of conduct can be punished and his membership can be withdrawn. The AIMA has prescribed a code of conduct for managers but it has no right to take legal action against any manager who violates it.
- Representative Association – For the regulation of profession, existance of a representative body is a must. For example, an institute of Charted Accountants of India establishes and administers standards of competence for the auditors but the AIMA however does not have any statuary powers to regulate the activities of managers.
From above discussion, it is quite clear that management fulfills several essentials of a profession, even then it is not a full fledged profession because: –
- It does not restrict the entry in managerial jobs for account of one standard or other.
- No minimum qualifications have been prescribed for managers.
- No management association has the authority to grant a certificate of practice to various managers.
- All managers are supposed to abide by the code formulated by AIMA,
- Competent education and training facilities do not exist. .
- Managers are responsible to many groups such as shareholders, employees and society. A regulatory code may curtail their freedom.
- Managers are known by their performance and not mere degrees.
- The ultimate goal of business is to maximize profit and not social welfare. That is why Haymes has rightly remarked, “The slogan for management is becoming – ’He who serves best, also profits most’.”
Features of Management:
Management is an activity concerned with guiding human and physical resources such that organizational goals can be achieved. Nature of management can be highlighted as: –
- Management is Goal-Oriented: The success of any management activity is accessed by its achievement of the predetermined goals or objective. Management is a purposeful activity. It is a tool which helps use of human & physical resources to fulfill the pre-determined goals. For example, the goal of an enterprise is maximum consumer satisfaction by producing quality goods and at reasonable prices. This can be achieved by employing efficient persons and making better use of scarce resources.
- Management integrates Human, Physical and Financial Resources: In an organization, human beings work with non-human resources like machines. Materials, financial assets, buildings etc. Management integrates human efforts to those resources. It brings harmony among the human, physical and financial resources.
- Management is Continuous: Management is an ongoing process. It involves continuous handling of problems and issues. It is concerned with identifying the problem and taking appropriate steps to solve it. E.g. the target of a company is maximum production. For achieving this target various policies have to be framed but this is not the end. Marketing and Advertising is also to be done. For this policies have to be again framed. Hence this is an ongoing process.
- Management is all Pervasive: Management is required in all types of organizations whether it is political, social, cultural or business because it helps and directs various efforts towards a definite purpose. Thus clubs, hospitals, political parties, colleges, hospitals, business firms all require management. When ever more than one person is engaged in working for a common goal, management is necessary. Whether it is a small business firm which may be engaged in trading or a large firm like Tata Iron & Steel, management is required everywhere irrespective of size or type of activity.
- Management is a Group Activity: Management is very much less concerned with individual’s efforts. It is more concerned with groups. It involves the use of group effort to achieve predetermined goal of management of ABC & Co. is good refers to a group of persons managing the enterprise.
Levels of Management:
|The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories: –
Managers at all these levels perform different functions. The role of managers at all the three levels is discussed below:
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
1. Top Level of Management
It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate source of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions.
The role of the top management can be summarized as follows –
- Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise.
- It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc.
- It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise.
- It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers.
- It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments.
- It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world.
- It provides guidance and direction.
- The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.
2. Middle Level of Management
The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and junior middle level management. Their role can be emphasized as –
- They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management.
- They make plans for the sub-units of the organization.
- They participate in employment & training of lower level management.
- They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level.
- They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department.
- It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management.
- They evaluate performance of junior managers.
- They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance.
3. Lower Level of Management
Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. According to R.C. Davis, “Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees”. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include –
- Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.
- They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities.
- They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production.
- They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization.
- They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers.
- They help to solve the grievances of the workers.
- They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.
- They are responsible for providing training to the workers.
- They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done.
- They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers.
- They ensure discipline in the enterprise.
- They motivate workers.
- They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.
Objectives of Management:
The main objectives of management are:
- Getting Maximum Results with Minimum Efforts – The main objective of management is to secure maximum outputs with minimum efforts & resources. Management is basically concerned with thinking & utilizing human, material & financial resources in such a manner that would result in best combination. This combination results in reduction of various costs.
- Increasing the Efficiency of factors of Production – Through proper utilization of various factors of production, their efficiency can be increased to a great extent which can be obtained by reducing spoilage, wastages and breakage of all kinds, this in turn leads to saving of time, effort and money which is essential for the growth & prosperity of the enterprise.
- Maximum Prosperity for Employer & Employees – Management ensures smooth and coordinated functioning of the enterprise. This in turn helps in providing maximum benefits to the employee in the shape of good working condition, suitable wage system, incentive plans on the one hand and higher profits to the employer on the other hand.
- Human betterment & Social Justice – Management serves as a tool for the upliftment as well as betterment of the society. Through increased productivity & employment, management ensures better standards of living for the society. It provides justice through its uniform policies.
Importance of Management:
- It helps in Achieving Group Goals – It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve goals. It directs group efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts disorganized resources of men, machines, money etc. into useful enterprise. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a manner that enterprise work towards attainment of goals.
- Optimum Utilization of Resources – Management utilizes all the physical & human resources productively. This leads to efficacy in management. Management provides maximum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternate use in industry from out of various uses. It makes use of experts, professional and these services leads to use of their skills, knowledge, and proper utilization and avoids wastage. If employees and machines are producing its maximum there is no under employment of any resources.
- Reduces Costs – It gets maximum results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum input & getting maximum output. Management uses physical, human and financial resources in such a manner which results in best combination. This helps in cost reduction.
- Establishes Sound Organization – No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated functions). To establish sound organizational structure is one of the objective of management which is in tune with objective of organization and for fulfillment of this, it establishes effective authority & responsibility relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates. Management fills up various positions with right persons, having right skills, training and qualification. All jobs should be cleared to everyone.
- Establishes Equilibrium – It enables the organization to survive in changing environment. It keeps in touch with the changing environment. With the change is external environment, the initial co-ordination of organization must be changed. So it adapts organization to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies. It is responsible for growth and survival of organization.
- Essentials for Prosperity of Society – Efficient management leads to better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of people. Good management makes a difficult task easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It improves standard of living. It increases the profit which is beneficial to business and society will get maximum output at minimum cost by creating employment opportunities which generate income in hands. Organization comes with new products and researches beneficial for society.
Management and Administration:
|According to Theo Haimann, “Administration means overall determination of policies, setting of major objectives, the identification of general purposes and laying down of broad programmes and projects”. It refers to the activities of higher level. It lays down basic principles of the enterprise. According to Newman, “Administration means guidance, leadership & control of the efforts of the groups towards some common goals”.Whereas, management involves conceiving, initiating and bringing together the various elements; coordinating, actuating, integrating the diverse organizational components while sustaining the viability of the organization towards some pre-determined goals. In other words, it is an art of getting things done through & with the people in formally organized groups.|
The difference between Management and Administration can be summarized under 2 categories: –
- Usage / Applicability
On the Basis of Functions: –
|Meaning||Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals.||It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies.|
|Nature||Management is an executing function.||Administration is a decision-making function.|
|Process||Management decides who should as it & how should he dot it.||Administration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done.|
|Function||Management is a doing function because managers get work done under their supervision.||Administration is a thinking function because plans & policies are determined under it.|
|Skills||Technical and Human skills||Conceptual and Human skills|
|Level||Middle & lower level function||Top level function|
On the Basis of Usage: –
|Applicability||It is applicable to business concerns i.e. profit-making organization.||It is applicable to non-business concerns i.e. clubs, schools, hospitals etc.|
|Influence||The management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs & decisions of the managers.||The administration is influenced by public opinion, govt. policies, religious organizations, customs etc.|
|Status||Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration (in the form of salaries & wages).||Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested & profits in the form of dividend.|
Practically, there is no difference between management & administration. Every manager is concerned with both – administrative management function and operative management function as shown in the figure. However, the managers who are higher up in the hierarchy denote more time on administrative function & the lower level denote more time on directing and controlling worker’s performance i.e. management.
The Figure above clearly shows the degree of administration and management performed by the different levels of management
Functions of Management:
|Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.|
For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others.
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:
- Identification of activities.
- Classification of grouping of activities.
- Assignment of duties.
- Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
- Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Staffing involves:
- Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place).
- Recruitment, selection & placement.
- Training & development.
- Performance appraisal.
- Promotions & transfer.
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:
Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.
Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.
Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.
Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding.
It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling has following steps:
a. Establishment of standard performance.
b. Measurement of actual performance.
c. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
d. Corrective action.
Introduction – Definition of Coordination:
Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. It is a hidden force which binds all the other functions of management. According to Mooney and Reelay, “Co-ordination is orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals”. According to Charles Worth, “Co-ordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”.
Management seeks to achieve co-ordination through its basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. That is why, co-ordination is not a separate function of management because achieving of harmony between individuals efforts towards achievement of group goals is a key to success of management. Co-ordination is the essence of management and is implicit and inherent in all functions of management.
A manager can be compared to an orchestra conductor since both of them have to create rhythm and unity in the activities of group members. Co-ordination is an integral element or ingredient of all the managerial functions as discussed below: –
- Co-ordination through Planning – Planning facilitates co-ordination by integrating the various plans through mutual discussion, exchange of ideas. e.g. – co-ordination between finance budget and purchases budget.
- Co-ordination through Organizing – Mooney considers co-ordination as the very essence of organizing. In fact when a manager groups and assigns various activities to subordinates, and when he creates department’s co-ordination uppermost in his mind.
- Co-ordination through Staffing – A manager should bear in mind that the right no. of personnel in various positions with right type of education and skills are taken which will ensure right men on the right job.
- Co-ordination through Directing – The purpose of giving orders, instructions & guidance to the subordinates is served only when there is a harmony between superiors & subordinates.
- Co-ordination through Controlling – Manager ensures that there should be co-ordination between actual performance & standard performance to achieve organizational goals.
From above discussion, we can very much affirm that co-ordination is the very much essence of management. It is required in each & every function and at each & every stage & therefore it cannot be separated.
Coordination and Cooperation:
|Co-ordination is an orderly arrangement of efforts to provide unity of action in the fulfillment of common objective whereas co-operation denotes collective efforts of persons working in an enterprise voluntarily for the achievement of a particular purpose. It is the willingness of individuals to help each other.Co-ordination is an effort to integrate effectively energies of different groups whereas co-operation is sort to achieve general objectives of business.Though these two are synonymous but they are different as below:|
Differences between Co-ordination and Co-operation
|Meaning||It is an orderly arrangement of group efforts in pursuit of common goals.||It means mutual help willingly.|
|Scope||It is broader than co-operation which includes as well because it harmonizes the group efforts.||It is termed as a part of co-ordination.|
|Process||The function of co-ordination is performed by top management.||The functions of co-operation are prepared by persons at any level.|
|Requirements||Co-ordination is required by employees and departments at work irrespective of their work.||Co-operation is emotional in nature because it depends on the willingness of people working together.|
|Relationship||It establishes formal and informal relationships.||It establishes informal relationship.|
|Freedom||It is planned and entrusted by the central authority & it is essential.||It depends upon the sweet will of the individuals and therefore it is not necessary.|
|Support||It seeks wholehearted support from various people working at various levels.||Co-operation without co-ordination is fruitless & therefore it may lead to unbalanced developments.|
Therefore, existence of co-operation may prove to be effective condition or requisite for co-ordination. But it does not mean that co-ordination originates automatically from the voluntary efforts of the group of members. It has to be achieved through conscious & deliberate efforts of managers, therefore to conclude we can say that co-operation without co-ordination has no fruit and co-ordination without co-operation has no root.
Principles of Management:
|A principle refers to a fundamental truth. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables under given situation. They serve as a guide to thought & actions. Therefore, management principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions. These principles are derived: –
There are 14 Principles of Management described by Henri Fayol.
1. Division of Labor
- Henry Fayol has stressed on the specialization of jobs.
- He recommended that work of all kinds must be divided & subdivided and allotted to various persons according to their expertise in a particular area.
- Subdivision of work makes it simpler and results in efficiency.
- It also helps the individual in acquiring speed, accuracy in his performance.
- Specialization leads to efficiency & economy in spheres of business.
2. Party of Authority & Responsibility
- Authority & responsibility are co-existing.
- If authority is given to a person, he should also be made responsible.
- In a same way, if anyone is made responsible for any job, he should also have concerned authority.
- Authority refers to the right of superiors to get exactness from their sub-ordinates whereas responsibility means obligation for the performance of the job assigned.
- There should be a balance between the two i.e. they must go hand in hand.
- Authority without responsibility leads to irresponsible behavior whereas responsibility without authority makes the person ineffective.
3. Principle of One Boss
- A sub-ordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one boss at a time.
- In other words, a sub-ordinate should not receive instructions from more than one person because –
– It undermines authority
– Weakens discipline
– Divides loyalty
– Creates confusion
– Delays and chaos
– Escaping responsibilities
– Duplication of work
– Overlapping of efforts
- Therefore, dual sub-ordination should be avoided unless and until it is absolutely essential.
- Unity of command provides the enterprise a disciplined, stable & orderly existence.
- It creates harmonious relationship between superiors and sub-ordinates.
4. Unity of Direction
- Fayol advocates one head one plan which means that there should be one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives.
- Related activities should be grouped together. There should be one plan of action for them and they should be under the charge of a particular manager.
- According to this principle, efforts of all the members of the organization should be directed towards common goal.
- Without unity of direction, unity of action cannot be achieved.
- In fact, unity of command is not possible without unity of direction.
|Basis||Unity of command||Unity of direction|
|Meaning||It implies that a sub-ordinate should receive orders & instructions from only one boss.||It means one head, one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives.|
|Nature||It is related to the functioning of personnel’s.||It is related to the functioning of departments, or organization as a whole.|
|Necessity||It is necessary for fixing responsibility of each subordinates.||It is necessary for sound organization.|
|Advantage||It avoids conflicts, confusion & chaos.||It avoids duplication of efforts and wastage of resources.|
|Result||It leads to better superior sub-ordinate relationship.||It leads to smooth running of the enterprise.|
Therefore it is obvious that they are different from each other but they are dependent on each other i.e. unity of direction is a pre-requisite for unity of command. But it does not automatically comes from the unity of direction.
- Equity means combination of fairness, kindness & justice.
- The employees should be treated with kindness & equity if devotion is expected of them.
- It implies that managers should be fair and impartial while dealing with the subordinates.
- They should give similar treatment to people of similar position.
- They should not discriminate with respect to age, caste, sex, religion, relation etc.
- Equity is essential to create and maintain cordial relations between the managers and sub-ordinate.
- But equity does not mean total absence of harshness.
- Fayol was of opinion that, “at times force and harshness might become necessary for the sake of equity”.
- This principle is concerned with proper & systematic arrangement of things and people.
- Arrangement of things is called material order and placement of people is called social order.
- Material order- There should be safe, appropriate and specific place for every article and every place to be effectively used for specific activity and commodity.
- Social order- Selection and appointment of most suitable person on the suitable job. There should be a specific place for every one and everyone should have a specific place so that they can easily be contacted whenever need arises.
- According to Fayol, “Discipline means sincerity, obedience, respect of authority & observance of rules and regulations of the enterprise”.
- This principle applies that subordinate should respect their superiors and obey their order.
- It is an important requisite for smooth running of the enterprise.
- Discipline is not only required on path of subordinates but also on the part of management.
- Discipline can be enforced if –
– There are good superiors at all levels.
– There are clear & fair agreements with workers.
– Sanctions (punishments) are judiciously applied.
- Workers should be encouraged to take initiative in the work assigned to them.
- It means eagerness to initiate actions without being asked to do so.
- Fayol advised that management should provide opportunity to its employees to suggest ideas, experiences& new method of work.
- It helps in developing an atmosphere of trust and understanding.
- People then enjoy working in the organization because it adds to their zeal and energy.
- To suggest improvement in formulation & implementation of place.
- They can be encouraged with the help of monetary & non-monetary incentives.
9. Fair Remuneration
- The quantum and method of remuneration to be paid to the workers should be fair, reasonable, satisfactory & rewarding of the efforts.
- As far as possible it should accord satisfaction to both employer and the employees.
- Wages should be determined on the basis of cost of living, work assigned, financial position of the business, wage rate prevailing etc.
- Logical & appropriate wage rates and methods of their payment reduce tension & differences between workers & management creates harmonious relationship and pleasing atmosphere of work.
- Fayol also recommended provision of other benefits such as free education, medical & residential facilities to workers.
10. Stability of Tenure
- Fayol emphasized that employees should not be moved frequently from one job position to another i.e. the period of service in a job should be fixed.
- Therefore employees should be appointed after keeping in view principles of recruitment & selection but once they are appointed their services should be served.
- According to Fayol. “Time is required for an employee to get used to a new work & succeed to doing it well but if he is removed before that he will not be able to render worthwhile services”.
- As a result, the time, effort and money spent on training the worker will go waste.
- Stability of job creates team spirit and a sense of belongingness among workers which ultimately increase the quality as well as quantity of work.
11. Scalar Chain
- Fayol defines scalar chain as ’The chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest”.
- Every orders, instructions, messages, requests, explanation etc. has to pass through Scalar chain.
- But, for the sake of convenience & urgency, this path can be cut shirt and this short cut is known as Gang Plank.
- A Gang Plank is a temporary arrangement between two different points to facilitate quick & easy communication as explained below:
In the figure given, if D has to communicate with G he will first send the communication upwards with the help of C, B to A and then downwards with the help of E and F to G which will take quite some time and by that time, it may not be worth therefore a gang plank has been developed between the two.
- Gang Plank clarifies that management principles are not rigid rather they are very flexible. They can be moulded and modified as per the requirements of situations
12. Sub-Ordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
- An organization is much bigger than the individual it constitutes therefore interest of the undertaking should prevail in all circumstances.
- As far as possible, reconciliation should be achieved between individual and group interests.
- But in case of conflict, individual must sacrifice for bigger interests.
- In order to achieve this attitude, it is essential that –
– Employees should be honest & sincere.
– Proper & regular supervision of work.
– Reconciliation of mutual differences and clashes by mutual agreement. For example, for change of location of plant, for change of profit sharing ratio, etc.
13. Espirit De’ Corps (can be achieved through unity of command)
- It refers to team spirit i.e. harmony in the work groups and mutual understanding among the members.
- Spirit De’ Corps inspires workers to work harder.
- Fayol cautioned the managers against dividing the employees into competing groups because it might damage the moral of the workers and interest of the undertaking in the long run.
- To inculcate Espirit De’ Corps following steps should be undertaken –
- There should be proper co-ordination of work at all levels
- Subordinates should be encouraged to develop informal relations among themselves.
- Efforts should be made to create enthusiasm and keenness among subordinates so that they can work to the maximum ability.
- Efficient employees should be rewarded and those who are not up to the mark should be given a chance to improve their performance.
- Subordinates should be made conscious of that whatever they are doing is of great importance to the business & society.
- He also cautioned against the more use of Britain communication to the subordinates i.e. face to face communication should be developed. The managers should infuse team spirit & belongingness. There should be no place for misunderstanding. People then enjoy working in the organization & offer their best towards the organization.
14. Centralization & De-Centralization
- Centralization means concentration of authority at the top level. In other words, centralization is a situation in which top management retains most of the decision making authority.
- Decentralization means disposal of decision making authority to all the levels of the organization. In other words, sharing authority downwards is decentralization.
- According to Fayol, “Degree of centralization or decentralization depends on no. of factors like size of business, experience of superiors, dependability & ability of subordinates etc.
- Anything which increases the role of subordinate is decentralization & anything which decreases it is centralization.
- Fayol suggested that absolute centralization or decentralization is not feasible. An organization should strike to achieve a lot between the two.
Features of Principles of Management:
- Principles of Management are Universal
- Principles of Management are Flexible
- Principles of Management have a Cause & Effect Relationship
- Principles of Management – Aims at Influencing Human Behavior
- Principles of Management are of Equal Importance
- Management principles are applicable to all kinds of organizations – business & non business.
- They are applicable to all levels of management.
- Every organization must make best possible use by the use of management principles.
- Therefore, they are universal or all pervasive.
- Management principles are dynamic guidelines and not static rules.
- There is sufficient room for managerial discretion i.e. they can be modified as per the requirements of the situation.
- Modification & improvement is a continuous phenomenon in case of principles of management.
- Principles of management indicate cause and effect relationship between related variables.
- They indicate what will be the consequence or result of certain actions. Therefore, if one is known, the other can be traced.
- Human behavior is complex and unpredictable.
- Management principles are directed towards regulating human behavior so that people can give their best to the organization.
- Management is concerned with integrating efforts and harmonizing them towards a goal.
- But in certain situations even these principles fail to understand human behavior.
- All management principles are equally important.
- No particular principle has greater importance than the other.
- They are all required together for the achievement of organizational goals.
Importance of Management Principles:
Following are the main importance of the Principles of Management.
- Improves Understanding.
- Direction for Training of Managers.
- Role of Management.
- Guide to Research in Management.
- Improves Understanding – From the knowledge of principles managers get indication on how to manage an organization. The principles enable managers to decide what should be done to accomplish given tasks and to handle situations which may arise in management. These principles make managers more efficient.
- Direction for Training of Managers – Principles of management provide understanding of management process what managers would do to accomplish what. Thus, these are helpful in identifying the areas of management in which existing & future managers should be trained.
- Role of Management – Management principles makes the role of managers concrete. Therefore these principles act as ready reference to the managers to check whether their decisions are appropriate. Besides these principles define managerial activities in practical terms. They tell what a manager is expected to do in specific situation.
- Guide to Research in Management – The body of management principles indicate lines along which research should be undertaken to make management practical and more effective. The principles guide managers in decision making and action. The researchers can examine whether the guidelines are useful or not. Anything which makes management research more exact & pointed will help improve management practice.
Introduction – Scientific Management by Taylor:
|Fredrick Winslow Taylor ( March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915) commonly known as ’Father of Scientific Management’started his career as an operator and rose to the position of chief engineer. He conducted various experiments during this process which forms the basis of scientific management. It implies application of scientific principles for studying & identifying management problems.According to Taylor, “Scientific Management is an art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way”. In Taylors view, if a work is analysed scientifically it will be possible to find one best wayto do it.Hence scientific management is a thoughtful, organized, dual approach towards the job of management against hit or miss or Rule of Thumb.|
According to Drucker, “The cost of scientific management is the organized study of work, the analysis of work into simplest element & systematic management of worker’s performance of each element”.
Principles of Scientific Management:
1. Development of Science for each part of men’s job (replacement of rule of thumb)
- This principle suggests that work assigned to any employee should be observed, analyzed with respect to each and every element and part and time involved in it.
- This means replacement of odd rule of thumb by the use of method of enquiry, investigation, data collection, analysis and framing of rules.
- Under scientific management, decisions are made on the basis of facts and by the application of scientific decisions.
2. Scientific Selection, Training & Development of Workers
- There should be scientifically designed procedure for the selection of workers.
- Physical, mental & other requirement should be specified for each and every job.
- Workers should be selected & trained to make them fit for the job.
- The management has to provide opportunities for development of workers having better capabilities.
- According to Taylor efforts should be made to develop each employee to his greatest level and efficiency & prosperity.
3. Co-operation between Management & workers or Harmony not discord
- Taylor believed in co-operation and not individualism.
- It is only through co-operation that the goals of the enterprise can be achieved efficiently.
- There should be no conflict between managers & workers.
- Taylor believed that interest of employer & employees should be fully harmonized so as to secure mutually understanding relations between them.
4. Division of Responsibility
- This principle determines the concrete nature of roles to be played by different level of managers & workers.
- The management should assume the responsibility of planning the work whereas workers should be concerned with execution of task.
- Thus planning is to be separated from execution.
5. Mental Revolution
- The workers and managers should have a complete change of outlook towards their mutual relation and work effort.
- It requires that management should create suitable working condition and solve all problems scientifically.
- Similarly workers should attend their jobs with utmost attention, devotion and carefulness. They should not waste the resources of enterprise.
- Handsome remuneration should be provided to workers to boost up their moral.
- It will create a sense of belongingness among worker.
- They will be disciplined, loyal and sincere in fulfilling the task assigned to them.
- There will be more production and economical growth at a faster rate.
6. Maximum Prosperity for Employer & Employees
- The aim of scientific management is to see maximum prosperity for employer and employees.
- It is important only when there is opportunity for each worker to attain his highest efficiency.
- Maximum output & optimum utilization of resources will bring higher profits for the employer & better wages for the workers.
- There should be maximum output in place of restricted output.
- Both managers & workers should be paid handsomely.
Techniques of Scientific Management:
1. Time Study
- It is a technique which enables the manager to ascertain standard time taken for performing a specified job.
- Every job or every part of it is studied in detail.
- This technique is based on the study of an average worker having reasonable skill and ability.
- Average worker is selected and assigned the job and then with the help of a stop watch, time is ascertained for performing that particular job.
- Taylor maintained that Fair day’s work should be determined through observations, experiment and analysis by keeping in view an average worker.
Standard Time × Working Hours = Fair Day’s Work
2. Motion Study
- In this study, movement of body and limbs required to perform a job are closely observed.
- In other words, it refers to the study of movement of an operator on machine involved in a particular task.
- The purpose of motion study is to eliminate useless motions and determine the bet way of doing the job.
- By undertaking motion study an attempt is made to know whether some elements of a job can be eliminated combined or their sequence can be changed to achieve necessary rhythm.
- Motion study increases the efficiency and productivity of workers by cutting down all wasteful motions.
3. Functional Foremanship
- Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification.
- This technique was developed to improve the quality of work as single supervisor may not be an expert in all the aspects of the work.
- Therefore workers are to be supervised by specialist foreman.
- The scheme of functional foremanship is an extension of principle pf specialization at the supervisory level.
- Taylor advocated appointment of 8 foramen, 4 at the planning level & other 4 at implementation level.
- The names & function of these specialist foremen are: –
- Instruction card clerk concerned with tagging down of instructions according to which workers are required to perform their job
- Time & cost clerk is concerned with setting a time table for doing a job & specifying the material and labor cost involved in it.
- Route clerk determines the route through which raw materials has to be passed.
- Shop Disciplinarians are concerned with making rules and regulations to ensure discipline in the organization.
- Gang boss makes the arrangement of workers, machines, tools, workers etc.
- Speed boss concerned with maintaining the speed and to remove delays in the production process.
- Repair boss concerned with maintenance of machine, tools and equipments.
- Inspector is concerned with maintaining the quality of product.
- It implies the physical attitude of products should be such that it meets the requirements & needs of customers.
- Taylor advocated that tools & equipments as well as working conditions should be standardized to achieve standard output from workers.
- Standardization is a means of achieving economics of production.
- It seems to ensure –
- The line of product is restricted to predetermined type, form, design, size, weight, quality. Etc
- There is manufacture of identical parts and components.
- Quality & standards have been maintained.
- Standard of performance are established for workers at all levels.
5. Differential Piece Wage Plan
- This tech of wage payment is based on efficiency of worker.
- The efficient workers are paid more wages than inefficient one.
- On the other hand, those workers who produce less than standard no. of pieces are paid wages at lower rate than prevailing rate i.e. worker is penalized for his inefficiency.
- This system is a source of incentive to workers who improving their efficiency in order to get more wages.
- It also encourages inefficient workers to improve their performance and achieve their standards.
- It leads to mass production which minimizes cost and maximizes profits.
6. Other Techniques
- Various other techniques have been developed to create ordeal relationship between management and workers and also to create better understanding on part of works.
- Those includes use of instruction cards, strict rules & regulations, graphs, slides, charts etc, so as to increase efficiency of workers.
Criticism of Scientific Management:
Although it is accepted that the scientific management enables the management to put resources to its best possible use and manner, yet it has not been spared of severe criticism.
- Unemployment – Workers feel that management reduces employment opportunities from them through replacement of men by machines and by increasing human productivity less workers are needed to do work leading to chucking out from their jobs.
- Exploitation – Workers feel they are exploited as they are not given due share in increasing profits which is due to their increased productivity. Wages do not rise in proportion as rise in production. Wage payment creates uncertainty & insecurity (beyond a standard output, there is no increase in wage rate).
- Monotony – Due to excessive specialization the workers are not able to take initiative on their own. Their status is reduced to being mere cogs in wheel. Jobs become dull. Workers loose interest in jobs and derive little pleasure from work.
- Weakening of Trade Union – To everything is fixed & predetermined by management. So it leaves no room for trade unions to bargain as everything is standardized, standard output, standard working conditions, standard time etc. This further weakens trade unions, creates a rift between efficient & in efficient workers according to their wages.
- Over speeding – the scientific management lays standard output, time so they have to rush up and finish the work in time. These have adverse effect on health of workers. The workers speed up to that standard output, so scientific management drives the workers to rush towards output and finish work in standard time.
- Expensive – Scientific management is a costly system and a huge investment is required in establishment of planning dept., standardization, work study, training of workers. It may be beyond reach of small firms. Heavy food investment leads to increase in overhead costs.
- Time Consuming – Scientific management requires mental revision and complete reorganizing of organization. A lot of time is required for work, study, standardization & specialization. During this overhauling of organization, the work suffers.
- Deterioration of Quality
Study of Fayol and Taylor:
Both the persons have contributed to development of science of management. The contribution of these two pioneers in the field of science of management has been reviewed as “The work of Taylor & Fayol was, of course, especially complementary. They both realized that problem of personnel & its management at all levels is the key to individual success. Both applied scientific method to this problem that Taylor worked primarily from operative level, from bottom to upward, while Fayol concentrated on managing director and work downwards, was merely a reflection of their very different careers”. They both differ from each other in following aspects: –
- Taylor looked at management from supervisory viewpoint & tried to improve efficiency at operating level. He moved upwards while formulating theory. On the other hand, Fayol analyzed management from level of top management downward. Thus, Fayol could afford a broader vision than Taylor.
- Taylor called his philosophy “Scientific Management” while Fayol described his approach as “A general theory of administration”.
- Main aim of Taylor – to improve labor productivity & to eliminate all type of waste through standardization of work & tools. Fayol attempted to develop a universal theory of management and stressed upon need for teaching the theory of management.
- Taylor focused his attention on fact by management and his principles are applicable on shop floor. But Fayol concentrated on function of managers and on general principles of management wheel could be equally applied in all.
Similarity – Both emphasized mutual co-operation between employment and employees.
Spheres of Human Activity
Fayol’s theory is more widely applicable than that of Taylor, although Taylor’s philosophy has undergone a big change Under influence of modern development, but Fayol’s principles of management have stood the test of time and are still being accepted as the core of management theory.
Psychologists View Point
According to Psychologists, Taylor’s study had following drawbacks: –
- Ignores human factors – Considers them as machines. Ignores human requirements, want and aspirations.
- Separation of Planning and Doing.
- Dissatisfaction – Comparing performance with others.
- No best way – Scientific management does not give one best way for solving problems.
|Human aspect||Taylor disregards human elements and there is more stress on improving men, materials and methods||Fayol pays due regards on human element. E.g. Principle of initiative, Espirit De’ Corps and Equity recognizes a need for human relations|
|Status||Father of scientific management||Father of management principles|
|Efficiency & administration||Stressed on efficiency||Stressed on general administration|
|Approach||It has micro-approach because it is restricted to factory only||It has macro-approach and discuses general principles of management which are applicable in every field of management.|
|Scope of principles||These principles are restricted to production activities||These are applicable in all kinds of organization regarding their management affairs|
|Achievement||Scientific management||Administrative management|